Kazan (; Russian: Каза́нь, IPA: [kɐˈzanʲ]; Tatar: Казан) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. With a population of 1,243,500, it is the sixth most populous city in Russia.
Kazan lies at the confluence of the Volga and Kazanka Rivers in Western Russia, about 715 kilometres (444 mi) east from Moscow. In the Late Middle Ages, Kazan was an important trade and political center within the Golden Horde. In 1438, the city became the capital of the Khanate of Kazan. In 1552, Kazan was captured by Ivan the Terrible and became part of Russia. The city was largely destroyed during Pugachev's Rebellion, but was later rebuilt during the reign of Catherine the Great. In the following centuries, Kazan grew to become a major industrial, cultural and religious center in Russia. Kazan was one of the host cities of the 2018 FIFA World Cup.
Kazan is renowned for its vibrant mix of Oriental and Russian cultures. In 2015, 2.1 million tourists visited Kazan, and 1.5 million tourists visited the Kazan Kremlin, a World Heritage Site. In April 2009, the Russian Patent Office granted Kazan the right to brand itself as the "Third Capital" of Russia. In 2009 it was chosen as the "sports capital of Russia" and it still is referred to as such.